Corded Ware Culture
This culture existed from 2900 BC to 1800 BC. Its expansion reached the territory of modern day Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine and European part of Russia.
Traces of emmer, common wheat and barley were found at a Corded Ware site at Bronocice in south-east Poland.
Wheeled vehicles (presumably drawn by oxen ) are in evidence, a continuation from the Funnelbeaker Culture era.
💀 They buried their dead in a single grave with body placed on side and sprinkled with ochre. Males on the right side and females on the left side of their body. Some graves contained the additional bones of: a dog and a swine
Some graves were in a form of a kurgan (tumulus). This is a shared aspect with yamna Culture. In 2011 AD in Mirocin, Poland there were unearthed 3 princely kurgan graves from around 3000 BC. One of them contained 7 ceramic pots, 3 flint battle axes and 6 arrowheads, 20 copper pieces of ornaments for clothing. It is a similar type of burial to that of the village Szczytna near Pawłosiów. 💀
As modern DNA tests have shown, the Corded Ware Culture has been established mostly by the people from the Yamna Culture (75% of their autosomal DNA). Y-DNA haplogroups of Corded Ware were mainly R1a with the majority being of R1a-Z645 subclade and one R1a-Z283. Around 2900 BC the Corded Ware Culture already spread to Bohemia in the territory of modern day Czech Republic. The haplogroups detected in that time and area were mainly R1b-L151 (6 out of 11) and one branch was determined to be ancestral to R1b-P312, the dominant Y-DNA in theBell Beaker Culture. The women of the Globular Amphorae Culture in the territory of Poland were taken by the invading Corded Ware Culture Indo-Europeans towards South to Czechia and these womens' mtDNA and autosomal DNA was detected in the Bohemian samples around 2900 BC.
In Scandinavia the transition from the preceding Neolithic period Hunther-Gatherer societies was rapid and represents a dramatic termination of Hunther-Gatherer traditions. It has been argued that the transformation is tied to initial migrations of people to the Western coast of Norway from the Bell Beaker Culture and Corded Ware Culture areas, possibly from Northern Jutland around 2800 BC.
The fact that two Latvian Hunter-Gatherer Y-DNA haplogroups have been characterized as belonging to R1b-M269 suggests that both subclades of R1 were present in the Baltic area before the expansion of the Corded Ware Culture. All four of the Estonian Corded Ware Culture individuals could be assigned to the R1a-Z645 subclade of haplogroup R1a-M417 which together with N is one of the most common Y chromosome haplogroups in present-day Estonians at 33% of male population. Importantly this R1a lineage is only distantly related to the R1a5 lineage found in the Estonian Comb Ceramic Culture (CCC) sample from 3600 BC.
Middle Neolithic Northern European populations composed of admixed WHG and EEF survived but were largely excluded from Corded Ware cemeteries and from marriage into the Corded Ware population. Even centuries after the initial migration the Corded Ware population at Esperstedt, dated to 2500 BC – 2400 BC, still exhibited 70% – 80% Yamna (Steppe) genes, although individual variations in the extent of local admixture were apparent.
Autosomal DNA tests also indicate that the Yamna migration from the Steppes introduced a component of ancestry referred to as Ancient North Eurasian admixture into Europe (but not Eastern Europe). Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) is the name given in genetic literature to a component that represents descent from the people of the Mal'ta-Buret' Culture (22000 BC) or a population closely related to them. The Ancient North Eurasian genetic component is visible in tests of the Yamna people as well as modern day Europeans, but not of Western or Central Europeans predating the Corded Ware Culture.
Corded Ware Culture also shows genetic affinity with the later Sintashta Culture. For example its R1a-Z93 Y-DNA haplogroup originated in modern day Carpathian Mountains region of Southern Poland and Western Ukraine and later migrated to Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture (ancestral to the Sintashta Culture, Tarim Mummies and Vedic Culture) in the territory of what is modern day Western Russia.
The R1a-M417 (R1a-Z645) appeared in Bohemia (Czechia) before the times of Unetice Culture (2000 BC) most probably from the Northern Europe near the area of Latvia andScandinavia(area related to the Battle Axe Culture region of the Corded Ware Culture). It was also connected to the overthrow of earlier Bell Beaker Culture lineages in Bohemia. This could also be the indication of the earliest Y-DNA ancestor of the nowadays most common R1a-M458 haplogroup in the Central Europe, which might already been present in that area during the times of Lusatian Culture.
They most probably believed in a myth about the freeing of the cows from the moist place of Vala. There are several hymns in the Rig Veda describing this event:2.12.3: Who slew the Dragon, freed the Seven Rivers, and drove the kine forth from the cave of Vala, Begat the fire between two stones, the spoiler in warriors' battle, He, O men, is Indra.
2.15.8: Praised by the Angirases he slaughtered Vala, and burst apart the bulwarks of the mountain. He tore away their deftly-built defences. These things did Indra in the Soma's rapture.
8.14.7: In Soma's ecstasy Indra spread the firmament and realms of light, when he cleft Vala limb from limb.
10.68.6: Brhaspati, when he with fiery lightnings cleft through the weapon of reviling Vala, consumed him as tongues eat what teeth have compassed: he threw the prisons of the red cows open.
1.11.5: Lord of the thunder, thou didst burst the cave of Vala rich in cows. The Gods came pressing to thy side, and free from terror aided thee.
1.62.4: Mid shout, loud shout, and roar, with the Navagvas, seven singers, hast thou, heavenly, rent the mountain; Thou hast, with speeders, with Dasagvas, Indra, Shakra, with thunder rent obstructive Vala.
The Finnish goddess of water, lakes and seas Wellamo from Kalevala could also be a remnant of that belief. Vellamo has magical cows that live on underwater fields. Sometimes, during the morning mist, she brings her cows above the surface to eat water hay. Vellamo wears a blue dress that is made from sea foam. The name "Vellamo" comes from the Finnish word "velloa", which means "movement of water and waves".
Hades possessed a herd of immortal, sable-black cattle which roamed the asphodel fields in the care of the herdsman Menoites. In older Greek myths the realm of Hades is described as misty and gloomy. In the story of Zeus battling the giant monstrous serpent Typhon during or after the Titanomachy, Hesiod's Theogony describes Hades as cowering down below in the Underworld while Zeus is busy hurling thunder bolts and battling Typhon to take his place as king of the Olympian gods. In other myth Hermes hid the dead cattle from Apollo in a cave.
The Slavic God of the Underworld Veles (Nyia) could be connected to bulls or maybe waves. The words for water wave in Balto-Slavic languages are: Bulgarian: вълна́ (vǎlná), Polish: fala, Old Polish: przewał, wełna, Russian: волна́ (volná), вал (val), Slovene: val, Belarusian: хва́ля (hválja), Latvian: vilnis, Lithuanian: vilnis, German: Welle, Romanian: val (Dacian). All those words could also be connected to a word "vele" meaning death. In Sanskrit वलय (valaya, falaia) means "coil", "enclosure", "cloud", "cavern", "cave", and वाल (vala) also means "the tail of a mammal".
The above myths can be condensed into a single Corded Ware Culture belief that the Thunder God killed the Death God and his Mighty Serpent and then brought humanity the gained wealth (cows) and running water.