Corded Ware Culture
This culture existed from 2900 BC to 1800 BC. Its expansion reached the territory of modern day Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine and European part of Russia.
Traces of emmer, common wheat and barley were found at a Corded Ware site at Bronocice in south-east Poland.
Wheeled vehicles (presumably drawn by oxen ) are in evidence, a continuation from the Funnelbeaker Culture era.
💀 They buried their dead in a single grave with body placed on side and sprinkled with ochre. Males on the right side and females on the left side of their body. Some graves contained the additional bones of: a dog and a swine
Some graves were in a form of a kurgan (tumulus). This is a shared aspect with yamna Culture. In 2011 AD in Mirocin, Poland there were unearthed 3 princely kurgan graves from around 3000 BC. One of them contained 7 ceramic pots, 3 flint battle axes and 6 arrowheads, 20 copper pieces of ornaments for clothing. It is a similar type of burial to that of the village Szczytna near Pawłosiów. 💀
As modern DNA tests have shown Corded Ware Culture has been established mostly by the people from the Yamna Culture (75% of their DNA). Y-DNA haplogroups of Corded Ware are R1a with the majority showing subclade R1a-Z645 and one R1a-Z283.
Autosomal DNA tests also indicate that the Yamna migration from the steppes introduced a component of ancestry referred to as "Ancient North Eurasian" admixture into Europe. Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) is the name given in genetic literature to a component that represents descent from the people of the Mal'ta-Buret' Culture or a population closely related to them. The Ancient North Eurasian genetic component is visible in tests of the Yamna people as well as modern day Europeans, but not of Western or Central Europeans predating the Corded Ware Culture.
Corded Ware Culture also shows genetic affinity with the later Sintashta Culture. For example its R1a-Z93 Y-DNA haplogroup originated in modern day Carpathians region of Poland and Western Ukraine and later migrated to Fatyanovo-Balonovo Culture (ancestral to the Sintashta Culture, Tarim Mummies and Vedic Culture) in the territory of what is modern day Western Russia.