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Sintashta Culture

Indo-European Sintashta Culture Site

This culture existed from 2100 BC to 1800 BC. It was present around modern Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia.

The earliest known chariots have been found in Sintashta burials and the culture is considered a strong candidate for the origin of this warfare technology, which spread throughout Europe, Anatolia and Egypt. Sintashta settlements are also remarkable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy carried out there, which is unusual for a steppe culture.

The Sintashta Culture emerged from the interaction of two antecedent cultures, the Poltavka Culture and the Abashevo Culture. Because of the difficulty of identifying the remains of Sintashta sites beneath those of later settlements, the culture was only recently distinguished from the Andronovo Culture. It is now recognised as a separate entity forming part of the "Andronovo horizon".

Its immediate predecessor in the Ural-Tobol steppe was the Poltavka Culture, an offshoot of the cattle-herding yamna Culture horizon that moved east into the region between 2800 BC and 2600 BC. Several Sintashta towns were built over older Poltavka settlements or close to Poltavka cemeteries, and Poltavka motifs are common on Sintashta pottery.

Sintashta material culture also shows the influence of the late Abashevo Culture, derived from the Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture, a collection of CORDED WARE Culture settlements in the forest steppe zone north of the Sintashta region that were also predominantly pastoralist.

💀 They buried their dead in a grave in a form of a kurgan (tumulus). Animals sacrificed as grave offerings were mostly 🐴 horses (up to eight of them in a single grave). There were also found various stone, copper, bronze weapons and silver, gold ornaments. It has been noted that the kind of funerary sacrifices evident at Sintashta have strong similarities to funerary rituals described in the Rig Veda. 💀

Many males from this culture belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1a-Z93 and Q1a.

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