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R1b Haplogroup

R1b Haplogroup distribution map

This haplogroup is associated with the yamna Culture and its derivation in Asia named Afanasievo Culture.

Published works indicate that R1b was a predominant haplogroup from the late Neolithic to the early Bronze Age, notably in the Bell Beaker and Yamnaya cultures. Nearly 100% of the tested Afanasievo men belonged to the R1b1a1a (R1b-P297) subhaplogroup and at least three of them to the R1b-L23 (xM412) subclade.

R1b was detected in two male skeletons from a German Bell Beaker site dated to 2600 BC – 2500 BC at Kromsdorf, one of which tested positive for R1b-M269 but negative for its U106 subclade, while for the other skeleton the R1b-M269 test was unclear. A later Bell Beaker male skeleton from Quedlinburg, Germany dated to 2296 BC – 2206 BC tested positive for R1b-M269-P312 subclade.

Almost 30% of R1b in Norway and Scandinavia can be "seen" through the Celtic and Italic or rather Unetice Culture influence. Unetice can be seen as the source of future Germanic, Celtic and Italic cultures and is associated mainly with the L11 subclade of R1b. The late Unetice Culture expanded to Scandinavia, founding the Nordic Bronze Age around 1700 BC. R1a-L664, R1b-L11, R1b-U106 (Bell Beaker) presumably reached Scandinavia around this time.

The Basque R1b is the descendant of R1b-M269 (R1b1a1b), which was found to be common among the Yamnaya population. It could mean that around 2800 BC males from the Bell Beaker Culture or 1000 BC Celtic males were taken to the Basque community and their children spoke the Hunther-Gatherer and European Farmer Basque language instead of a centum dialect of Indo-European.

More than 30% of modern day Armeninans belong to a haplogroup R1b-L23.

18.5% of Albanian males belong to the subclade R1b1b2 (R1b-M269). Most of the Albanian R1b comes from the Yamnaya dervied R1b-Z2103 (BY611) subclade.

One sample from Varna Culture belonged to R1b-V88. Another burial from this culture called "The Golden Man", with the largest gold collection found in prehistoric Europe, was identified as haplogroup T-M184.

A list below shows the decreasing percentage of R1b in the whole male population of the following nations:

  1. Basques: 85%
  2. Irish: 81%
  3. Bretons: 80%
  4. Welsh: 74%
  5. Scots: 72%
  6. Spanish: 69%
  7. English: 67%
  8. Belgians: 61%
  9. French: 58%
  10. Portugalians: 56%
  11. Swiss: 50%
  12. Corsicans: 49%
  13. Bashkirs: 47%
  14. Germans: 44%
  15. Icelanders: 42%
  16. Danish: 33%
  17. Norwegians: 32%
  18. Austrians: 32%
  19. Czech: 28%
  20. Swedish: 22%
  21. Vlachs: 21%
  22. Hungarians: 19%
  23. Turkish: 16%
  24. Albanians: 16%
  25. Greeks: 15%
  26. Romanians: 15%
  27. Slovakians: 15%
  28. Polish: 13%
  29. Latvians: 12%
  30. Bulgarians: 11%
  31. Iranians: 10%
  32. Estonians: 8%
  33. Ukrainians: 8%
  34. Russians: 6%
  35. Lithuanians: 5%
  36. Finnish: 3%

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