This culture existed from 3300 BC to 2500 BC in South Siberia, occupying the Minusinsk Basin and the Altai Mountains during the eneolithic era.
The Afanasievo economy includedcattle, sheep, and goat. Horse remains, either wild or domestic, have also been found. The Afanasievo people became the first food-producers in the area. Tools were manufactured from stone (axes, arrowheads), bone (fish-hooks, points) and antler. Among the antler pieces are objects that have been identified as possible cheek-pieces for horses. Artistic representations of wheeled vehicles found in the area has been attributed to the Afanasievo culture. Ornaments of copper, silver and gold have also been found.
💀 Mass graves were not usual for this culture. Afanasievo cemeteries include both single and small collective burials with the deceased usually flexed on his back in a pit. The burial pits are arranged in rectangular, sometimes circular, enclosures marked by stone walls. It has been argued that the burials represent family burial plots with four or five enclosures constituting the local social group. 💀
According to Allentoft et al. (2015) and Haak et al. (2015), Afanasievo were genetically indistinguishable from yamna people, putative Proto-Indo-Europeans under the Kurgan hypothesis. Only three Afanasievo male samples have had their paternal lineage results published, and all three, like most Yamna males, belong to haplogroup R1b, with two of them belonging to subclade M269, the most numerous among both the Yamna people and in modern Western Europe.
Allentoft et al. (2015) study also confirms that the Afanasievo Culture was replaced by the second wave of Indo-European migrations from the Andronovo Culture during late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Tarim mummies were also found to be genetically closer to the Andronovo culture than to the Yamna culture or Afanasievo Culture.