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Indo-European God Deus Dievas Div Dziw Ziw Zeus icon

A Lycian language from the Anatolian branch of Indo-European languages has a word "ziw" meaning "God", which is exactly the same as a Lower Sorbian word "źiw" meaning "miracle, wonder". Similar to those two is also an Old High German word "Ziu" meaning "God". Upper Sorbian "dźiw" and Polish "dziw" might be good candidates for missing initial "D" in those words.

Was it Zeus then or rather Dzeus...

This god's name in the nominative form is Ζεύς (Zeús). It is inflected as follows:

  • genitive: Διός (Diós)
  • dative: Διί (Dií)
  • accusative: Δία (Día)
  • vocative: Ζεῦ (Zeû)

The earliest attested forms of this name are the Mycenaean Greek "di-we" and "di-wo", written in the Linear B syllabic script.

The "taivaz, taivas" word in Finnic languages meaning "sky" comes most certainly from the times of the Corded Ware Culture. Vedic Sanskrit "देव (daivá)" meaning "heavenly, divine" is proving that because it originated in Sintashta Culture that through Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture derives itself from the Corded Ware Culture.

Germans are often pronouncing English "The" as "Ze", no wonder then that "Tīw" or "Dīw" became "Ziu" in their language.

This word is also a good proof that in the past V = U = W = Ŭ.

Old Irish "día" could then mean either "God" or "day". It gave rise to modern Irish "dia" and "Dé", notice that Greek "Δίας (Días)" is also another name for Zeus. Gujarati "દિવસ (divas)" and Marathi "दिवस (divas)" also mean "day", Old Armenian "տիւ (tiw)" means "daytime", which also suggests that Tiw (Div) was a God of daylight sky.

Old Church Slavonic "дьнь ⰴⱐⱀⱐ (dĭnĭ)" meaning "day" is a cognate to Sanskrit "दिन (diná)", Latin "diēs", Lithuanian "diena", Old Prussian "deina", all meaning "day".

This is important because of the probable relation to the god called Dionysus. Later variants of his name include Diōnūsos in Boeotia, Dien(n)ūsos in Thessaly, Deonūsos and Deunūsos in Ionia, and Dinnūsos in Aeolia. A Dio- prefix is found in other names, such as that of the Dioscures, and may derive from Dios, the genitive of the name of Zeus. The second element -nūsos is associated with Mount Nysa, the birthplace of Zeus in Greek mythology, where he was nursed by nymphs (the Nysiads), but according to Pherecydes of Syros, nũsa was an archaic word for a tree.

There is a river and town in Poland called Nysa (also Nisa, Nissa, Neise).


Sanskrit: देव (devá)

  • deity, god, the gods as the heavenly or shining ones, often reckoned as numbering 33, either 11 for each of the 3 worlds or 8 vasus, 11 rudras, and 12 ādityas, to which the 2 aśvins must be added.
  • rarely also of evil demons
  • name of Indra as the god of the sky and giver of rain
  • the image of a god, an idol
  • a god on earth or among men, either Brahman, priest or king, prince, as a title of honour, especially in the vocative "your majesty" or " your honour"
  • Name of the number 33

---> Malay: dewa

---> Tamil: தேவன் (tēvaṉ)

---> Telugu: dēvuḍu

Laconian Greek:Δεύς (Deús) ("Zeus")

Latin: deus

Galician: deus

Portuguese: deus

Jatvingain: deus

Volscian: deue (

Catalan: déu

Sardinian: déu

Hindi: देव (dev)

Old Gujarati: देव (deva)

Rajasthani: देव (dev)

Cornish: dew

Gaulish: Deuognata, teuoxtonio-, Dēuos, Dēwos, Dēvona

Middle English: Tewesday ("Tuesday")

Galician: Deva (river name)

Avestan: daēuua ("demon, spirit")

---> Georgian: დევი (devi) ("demon, spirit")

---> English: daeva ("demon, spirit")

Baluchi: دیو‎ (dêw) ("demon, spirit")

Kurdish: dêw ("demon, giant, monster")

Pashto: دېو‎ (dew) ("demon, spirit")

Middle Persian: dēw ("evil spirit, demon")

Old Armenian: դէւ (dēw) ("demon, spirit")

Armenian: դև (dew) ("demon, spirit")

Curonian: Deews

French: dieu

Occitan: dieu

Romansch: dieu

Latvian: dievs

Lithuanian: diẽvas

Old Prussian: dēiwas, dēiws

Gothic: 𐍄𐌴𐌹𐍅𐍃 (teiws)

Old Latin: deiuos (Duenos inscription)

Celtiberian: Teiuoreikis

Oscan: 𐌃𐌄𐌝𐌅𐌀𐌝 (deívaí), 𐌃𐌄𐌝𐌅𐌀𐌔 (deívas), deiuatud, deiuaid, deiuast, deiuatuns, 𐌃𐌄𐌉𐌅𐌉𐌍𐌀𐌉𐌔 (deivinais)

Venetic: 𐌃𐌄𐌉𐌅𐌏𐌔 (deivos) (

Romanian: zeu, zău

Ancient Greek: Ζεύς (Zeús), Ζήν (Zḗn) ("Zeus")

Poetic Greek: Ζήν (Zḗn) ("Zeus")

Greek: Ζευς (Zefs) ("Zeus")


Mycenaean Greek: di-we, di-wo

Lydian: 𐤹𐤦𐤥𐤳 (tifs, tivs, tiws, divs), divi-

Latgalian: dīvs, dīws

Latin: dīvus ("god, fairy")

Friulian: diu

Corsican: diu

Sicilian: diu

Leonese: dius, dious

Mirandese: dius

Oscan: 𐌃𐌉𐌞𐌅𐌄𐌝 (diúveí), 𐌉𐌞𐌅𐌄𐌝 (iúveí), 𐌉𐌖𐌅𐌄𐌝 (iuveí) ("sky, day, Jupiter")

Sanskrit: द्यु (dyú) ("sky, heaven")

English: divine ("godly")

Persian: دیو‎ (div) ("demon, spirit")

---> Arabic: ديو‎ (díyu) ("demon, spirit")

---> English: div ("demon, spirit")

---> Ottoman Turkish: دیو‎ (div) ("demon, spirit")

---> Urdu: دیو‎ (dīv) ("demon, spirit")

Belarusian: дзі́ва (dzíva) ("wonder, miracle")

Russian: ди́во (dívo) ("wonder, miracle")

Rusyn: ди́во (dývo) ("wonder, miracle")

Ukrainian: ди́во (dývo) ("wonder, miracle")

Old Church Slavonic: дивъ (divŭ), диво (divo) ("wonder, miracle")

Czech: div ("wonder, miracle")

Polish: dziw ("wonder, miracle")

Slovak: div ("wonder, miracle")

Upper Sorbian: dźiw ("wonder, miracle")

Lithuanian: dyvas ("wonder, miracle")

Latvian: diva ("wonder, miracle")

Russian: ди́вный (dívnyj) ("amazing, wondrous")

Old Church Slavonic: дивьнъ ⰴⰻⰲⱐⱀⱏ (divĭnŭ) ("amazing, wondrous")

Bulgarian: дивен (diven) ("amazing, wondrous")

Serbo-Croatian: ди̑ван dȋvan ("amazing, wondrous")

Slovene: díven ("amazing, wondrous")

Czech: divný ("amazing, wondrous")

Polish: dziwny ("amazing, wondrous")

Slovak: divný ("amazing, wondrous")

Russian: диви́ться (divítʹsja) ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Ukrainian: диви́тися (dyvýtysja) ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Old Church Slavonic: дивити сѧ ⰴⰻⰲⰻⱅⰻ ⱄⱔ (diviti sę) ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Bulgarian: дивя́ се (divjá se ) ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Serbo-Croatian: дѝвити се, díviti se ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Czech: diviti se ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Polish: dziwić się ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Slovak: diviť sa ("to be surprised, to astonish")

Russian: ди́во (dívo) ("miracle")

Ukrainian: ди́во (dývo) ("miracle")

Old Church Slavonic: диво ⰴⰻⰲⱁ (divo) ("miracle")

Cyrillic: ди̑во ("miracle")

Latin: dȋvo ("miracle")

Old Polish: dziwo ("miracle")

Slovak: divo ("miracle")

Old Norse: Tivar ("the gods")

Old English: Tīw

English: Tiw

Old Frisian: Tii

Luwian: tiwat ("a sun god")

Luwian: tiwas ("sky")

Old English: tiwesdæġ ("Tuesday")

Middle English: Tiwesday, Tywysday ("Tuesday")

English: Tuesday ("Tuesday")

Lower Sorbian: źiw ("wonder, miracle")

Lycian: ziw

Old High German: Ziu


Hittite: si-i-us, ši-i-ú-uš (sius, šīuš)


---> Estonian: taevas ("sky")

---> Finnish: taivas ("sky")

---> Karelian: taivas ("sky")

---> Võro: taivas ("sky")

---> Livonian: tōvaz ("sky")

---> Ludian: taivaz ("sky")

---> Veps: taivaz ("sky")

---> Votic: taivaz ("sky")

---> Classical Syriac: ܕܝܘܐ‎ (daywā) ("demon, spirit")

---> Malayalam: ദൈവം (daivaṃ)

Sanskrit: देव (daivá) ("heavenly, divine, also said of terrestrial things of high excellence")

Old Persian: 𐎭𐎡𐎺 (daiva) ("demon, spirit")

Dalmatian: dai, di

Northern Kurdish: zav (zāv) ("Mercury planet")

Central Kurdish: زاوە‎ (zāwa) ("Mercury planet")

Persian: زاوش‎ (zāvoš) ("Jupiter planet or Mercury planet")


Old Cornish: duy

Old Welsh: duiu

Welsh: duw

Old Norse: Týr

Icelandic: Týr

Faroese: Týrur

Norwegian: Ty

Swedish: Tyr

Danish: Tyr, Ty, Ti

English: Tyr

Old Norse: týsdagr ("Tuesday")

Icelandic: týsdagur (archaic) ("Tuesday")

Faroese: týsdagur ("Tuesday")

Norwegian Nynorsk: tysdag ("Tuesday")

Scots: Tysday ("Tuesday")

Yola: Tusedei ("Tuesday")


---> Finnish: tiistai ("Tuesday")

Palaic: tiyaz, tiuna

West Frisian: tiisdei ("Tuesday")

Norwegian Bokmål: tirsdag ("Tuesday")

Old Danish: tisdagh ("Tuesday")

Danish: tirsdag, tisdag ("Tuesday")

Old Swedish: tisdagher ("Tuesday")

Swedish: tisdag ("Tuesday")

Middle English: Tisday ("Tuesday")

Middle High German: zīstac ("Tuesday")

Alemannic German: zischtag, zischtog, zischtàg, Ziischtig, Zischtig, Zischdi ("Tuesday")

Swabian: Zischtig ("Tuesday")


Old Frisian: tīesdei ("Tuesday")

North Frisian: teisdai ("Tuesday")

Saterland Frisian: Täisdai ("Tuesday")

Gutnish: teisdagar, teisdag ("Tuesday")

Alemannic German: zéischtag ("Tuesday")

Middle High German: zīestac ("Tuesday")

German: Ziestag ("Tuesday")

Swabian: Zeischdig ("Tuesday")


Istriot: deo

Ido: deo

Celtiberian: Deobriga


Cretan Greek: Τάν (Tán) ("Zeus")

Doric Greek: Ζάν (Zán) ("Zeus")


Old Irish: día

Irish: dia, Dia, Dé

Manx: jee

Scottish Gaelic: dia

Greek: Δίας (Días) ("Zeus")

Sanskrit: द्यौष्पितृ (dyáuṣ-pitṛ́) ("Sky Father")

Avestan: dyaoš ("sky's, heaven's")


Latin: diovos, diovei ("day, sky, Jupiter")

Franco-Provençal: diô

Italian: dio

Venetian: dio

Neapolitan: ddìo

Aragonese: dios

Asturian: dios

Extremaduran: dios

Spanish: dios


Old High German: zīostag ("Tuesday")


Old Breton: -doi

Middle Breton: doe

Breton: doue

Article published on the 30th of October 2018.