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indo-european wheel circle kolo kolon kolos hjól cale karika ring rengas icon

Dutch "kring" and Old Norse "kringr" meaning "circle" prove that the initial K was dropped in this word later on and formed a usual Germanic "ring".

Treating Romanian "crâng (krâng)" as a loan word from Slavic is mostly illogical. None of the surrounding Slavic languages have the nasal "an" after kr (krȗg, kruh, krǎg, krǫgŭ), except for Old Polish in the years 1400-1600 CE. If it is a borrowing from the times of Old Church Slavonic then it denies the whole theory that "ѫ" was indeed a nasal o ("ǫ"). If it indeed is a Slavic borrowing and not Dacian or Thracian in origin then it would mean that "ѫ" had a value of nasal "ą" (which would perfectly explain modern day Bulgarian кръг krǎg) or that Slavic people came from the territory of modern day Poland towards the South of Europe.


Ancient Greek: κῶλον (kôlon) ("part of something, member")

Greek: κώλος (kolos) ("hole")

Latin: colus (kolus) ("spinning, spun thread")

Old Church Slavonic: коло (kolo)

Old East Slavic: коло (kolo)

Macedonian: ко́ло (kólo)

Serbo-Croatian: ко̏ло, kȍlo

Slovene: kolọ̑

Czech: kolo

Polish: koło

Belarusian: ко́ла (kóla)

Bulgarian: ко́лело (kólelo)

Russian: ко́ло (kólo), колесо́ (kolesó)

Ukrainian: ко́ло (kólo), ко́лесо (kóleso)

Slovak: kolo, koleso

Upper Sorbian: koło, koleso

Lower Sorbian: koło, kólaso

Russian: кольцо́ (kolʹcó) ("ring")


---> Hungarian: köröcske (koročke) ("small circle")



Old Norse: hjól

Icelandic: hjól

Faroese: hjól

Westrobothnian: hiol


Tocharian B: kokale

Latgalian: koklys ("neck")

Ancient Greek: κορωνός (korōnós) ("curved, crooked")


---> Võro: kaal ("neck")

---> Finnish: kaula ("neck")

---> Estonian: kael ("neck")

Baluchi: چلہ‎‎ (kalla) ("ring")

Urdu: چھلا‎‎ (khallā) ("ring")

Latin: callis (kallis) ("path, track")

Aromanian: cali

Asturian: calle, caye, cai

---> Basque: kale

Catalan: call

Dalmatian: cale

Istriot: cal

Italian: calle

Romanian: cale

Spanish: calle

Venetian: cale, całe, cal

Belarusian: кальцо́ (kalʹcó) ("ring")


---> Hungarian: karika ("ring, circle")


Albanian: hallkë ("ring")


---> Northern Karelian: kakla ("neck")

---> Southern Karelian: kagla ("neck")

---> Livonian: kaggõl ("neck")

---> Veps: kagl ("neck")

---> Votic: kagla ("neck")

Latvian: kakls ("neck")

Lithuanian: kãklas ("neck")


Sanskrit: चक्र (cakrá)

Hindi: चक्र (cakra)

Pali: cakka

Urdu: چکر‎ (cakra)

Avestan: cahra

Manichaean: chr /čahr/

Old Armenian: ճախր (čahr) ("turn, wheeling around")

Book Pahlavi: cʾhlk' /čahrag/

Middle Persian: čahr ("circle")

Persian: چرخ‎ (čarh)


Lower Sorbian: kulaty ("round")

Czech: kulatý ("round")

Polish: kółko (kulko) ("small circle")


Uyghur: كۇرۇژوك‎‎ (kuruzhok) ("group of people")

Hittite: hurki-, hurkis (ḫūrkis)


Tocharian A: kukäl (kukel)

Mycenean Greek: ku-ke-re-u

Ancient Greek: κύκλος (kúklos) ("cycle, wheel, circle, ring, any circular object, a crowd of people, marketplace, circular movement, sphere, globe")

Greek: κύκλος (kýklos) ("circle")


KU --> HU

Old English: hweogl, hweogol, hweohl, hweowl, hweowol, hwēol

Middle English: qweel (kueel)

Scots: quhel, quhele, quheil, quheile, wheel (kukel, kukele, kukeil, kukeile, ukeel)

Old Frisian: hwēl, fiāl, tziāl

Old Saxon: hwiol

Old Norse: hvél

Icelandic: hvel

Faroese: hvæl

Norwegian: hjul

Norn: hurl

Old Swedish: hiūl, hiughl

Swedish: hjul

Danish: hjul

Elfdalian: juol

Westrobothnian: hjul, hvel


---> Estonian: kael ("neck")

---> Finnish: kela ("reel, coil")

Old Prussian: kelan

Old High German: kela ("throat")

Old Dutch: kela ("throat")

Middle Dutch : kele ("throat")

Dutch keela ("throat")

Breton: kelc'h ("circle")

Lithuanian: kelionė ("journey, trip")

Latvian: ceļojums ("journey, trip")

Latin: celer (keler) ("swift, fast")

Ancient Greek: κέλλω (kéllō) ("to drive on, to run a ship to land, put a ship to shore")


Romanian: cerc (kerk) ("circle")


Middle English: whel, whele

English: wheel

North Frisian: weyel, weel

Saterland Frisian: Wäil

Middle Low German: wēl, wiel

German Low German: Weel

Middle Dutch: wiel, weel

Dutch: wiel

Afrikaans: wiel

Old Frisian: wēl

West Frisian: wiele

German: Wiele (in combination: Wielstein, Wieltrosz, Wielesche)

West Frisian: fjil, tsjil, tsjel


Serbo-Croatian: кру̑г krȗg ("ring, circle")

Slovak: krúžok ("ring, circle")

Slovak: okrúhly ("round")

East Slavic: кругъ (krugŭ) ("circle")

Russian: круг (krug) ("circle")

Belarusian: круг (kruh) ("circle")

Belarusian: кру́глы (krúhly) ("round")

Ukrainian: круг (kruh) ("circle")

Old Czech: kruh ("circle")

Czech: kruh ("circle")

Upper Sorbian: kruh ("circle")

Macedonian: кружен (krúžen), округол (ókrugol) ("round")

Russian: кру́глый (krúglyj), окру́глый (okrúglyj) ("round")

Ukrainian: круглий (krúhlyj) ("round")

Irish: cruinn ("round")

Welsh: crwn ("round")


Bulgarian: кръг (krǎg) ("circle")

Bulgarian: кръгъл (krǎ̀gǎl) ("round")

Macedonian: краг (krag), круг (krug) ("circle")

Old Polish: krąg (krang) ("circle")

Romanian: crâng (krâng) ("grove, thicket")


Luxembourgish: Rank ("ring")

Old French: harangue ("ring")

French: harangue ("ring")


Slovene: krọ̑g ("circle")

Slovene: okrogel ("round")

Czech: kroužek ("ring")

Polish: krąg (krong) ("circle")

Polish: krągły, okrągły ("round")

Old Church Slavonic: крѫгъ (krǫgŭ = krongŭ) ("circle")


---> Estonian: rõngas ("ring, loop, hoop")

---> Votic: rõngaz ("ring")


Luxembourgish: Krees ("circle")

Rhine Franconian: Krääs ("circle")

German: Kreis ("circle")

Breton: krenn ("round")

Cornish: krenn ("round")

Polish: kręg (kreng) ("circle; group of people")

Umbrian: krenkatrum ("circle")


Because a ring is worn on hand it might have come from a Polish word "ręka (renka)" meaning "hand" with a Corded Ware masculine ending of "-az".

None of the Germanic languages preserve the nasal "ę" = "en" which is kept in those Finnic languages.

Umbrian "krenkatrum" proves my theory of initial nasal "ę" in this word.

---> Ingrian: renkas ("ring")

---> Northern Karelian: renkas ("ring")

---> Southern Karelian: rengas ("ring")

---> Livvi: rengas ("ring")

---> Finnish: rengas ("ring, loop, hoop")

---> Finnish: rengas ("group of people")

---> Ludian: rengaz ("ring")

---> Veps: rengaz ("ring")

Occitan: arengua ("ring")

Spanish: arenga ("ring")

Portuguese: arenga ("ring")

Middle Latin: harenga ("ring") (?karenga)

There is also a possibility that "en" transformed to "in" as shown below.


Umbrian: cringatro ("circle")

Old Norse: kringr ("circle")

Faroese: kringur ("circle")

Middle Dutch: kring ("circle")

Dutch: kring ("circle")

Low German: Kring ("circle")

Middle High German: kring ("circle")

Limburgish: krink ("circle")


Old English: hring, hrincg ("ring")

Old Saxon: hring ("ring")

Old Norse: hringr ("ring")

Icelandic: hringur ("ring")


Middle English: ring, rink, renk ("ring")

Scots: ring ("ring")

English: ring, rink ("ring")

Old Frisian: hring ("ring")

North Frisian: Ring, Rink ("ring")

Saterland Frisian: Ring ("ring")

West Frisian: ring ("ring")

Middle Low German: ring ("ring")

Low German: rink ("ring")

Plautdietsch: Rinkj ("ring")

Old Dutch: ring, rinc ("ring")

Middle Dutch: ring, rinc ("ring")

Dutch: ring ("ring")

Afrikaans: ring ("ring")

Old High German: ring ("ring")

German: Ring ("ring")

Faroese: ringur ("ring")

Norn: ring ("ring")

Norwegian: ring ("ring")

Old Swedish: ringer ("ring")

Swedish: ring ("ring")

Old Danish: ring ("ring")

Danish: ring ("ring")

Elfdalian: ringg ("ring")

Gutnish: ringg ("ring")

Latvian: riņķis ("circle")

Old Italian: aringo, arringo ("ring")

Italian: aringa, arringa ("ring")


Phrygian: κίκλην (kiklen)

Old Irish: circul ("circle")

Irish: ciorcal ("circle")

Manx: kiarkyl ("circle")

Manx: kiarkyl ("ring")

Ukrainian: кільце́ (kilʹcé) ("ring")

Zazaki: kılor ("circle")


---> Karelian: ratas

---> Finnish: ratas ("cogwheel")

---> Finnish: ratti ("steering wheel")

---> Estonian: ratas

Sanskrit: रथ (ratha) ("chariot")

Lithuanian: ratas ("wheel, ring, circle")

Latvian: rats

Old Saxon: rath

Middle Low German: rat

Swedish: ratt

Finnish: ratti

Norwegian: ratt

Danish: rat

Elfdalian: ratt

Middle Dutch: rat, rad

Middle High German: rat

Plautdietsch: Raut

Dutch: rad

Limburgish: raad

Old High German: rad

German: Rad

Esperanto: rado

Luxembourgish: Rad


---> Basque: errota

Latin: rota

Albanian: rrotë

Aromanian: aroatã, roatã

Italian: ruota

Maltese: rota

Neapolitan: rota

Sicilian: rota

English: rota, rotate

Dutch: roteren

Catalan: roda

Galician: roda

Occitan: ròda, arròda

Portuguese: roda

Romansch: roda, rouda

Sardinian: roda, arroda, rota, orroda

Venetian: roda, rua


Franco-Provençal: roua

French: roue

Romanian: roată

Walloon: rowe


Old Frisian: reth

West Frisian: rêd

Albanian: rreth ("hoop, circle, wheel rim")


Asturian: rueda

Friulian: ruede

Istriot: rùda

Spanish: rueda

Article published on the 30th of October 2018. The theories above are the sole ideas of the Indo-European Connection. On 6th of September 2022 I removed the Hittite word "ḫalii̯a" because it does not mean wheel at all but "kneel", I do not know who forged it.