Indo-European Connection LogoINDO-EUROPEAN  CONNECTIONIndo-European Connection Logo
Indo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection LogoINDO-EUROPEAN  CONNECTIONIndo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection Logo


indo-european sun sol saule sonce sunne sul surya icon

The importance of the Sun does not have to be discussed. It is the most important thing for each life on Earth. It is a giver of warmth during the day and it is the reason why plants can grow, which makes the Sun a provider of food.

ᛊ is a letter of the Runic alphabet present in the Elder Fuþark in its three-line variant. It is also present in the Anglo-Saxon Fuþorc and Younger Fuþark as ᛋ.

Very interesting seems the connection between Slavic "sōl" which means salt and Latin "sōl" which means the Sun. Latin word "solum" means "ground, earth, land, soil", while a Lithuanian word for "the world surrounding us" and "the Earth" is "Pasaulis" which literally means "under the Sun".

Maybe the only way to get salt in the times of Indo-Europeans was to put water outside where the Sun was shining and then what was left in a bowl were white minerals, those that have salty flavour.

Probably they could spot that the Sun did this so maybe what was left of the rays of the Sun in the bowl were the pieces of the Sun itself...


Latin: sōl

Old English: sōl

Old Norse: sól

Icelandic: sól

Faroese: sól

Norwegian: sol

Old Swedish: sōl

Swedish: sol

Danish: sol

Aragonese: sol

Volapük: sol

Asturian: sol

Extremaduran: sol

Leonese: sol

Mirandese: sol

Old Portuguese: sol

Fala: sol

Galician: sol

Portuguese: sol

Catalan: sol

Spanish: sol

Gutnish: sol, soli

Old Occitan: sol, solelh

Corsican: soli

Italian: sole

Neapolitan: sole

Franco-Provençal: soley

Old French: soleil

Middle French: soleil

French: soleil

Occitan: solelh

Sardinian: sole, sobi, soi, soli

Venetian: sołe

Walloon: solea

Russian: со́лнце (sólnce)


Jatvingian (Sudovian): sała


Old Church Slavonic: слъньце ⱄⰾⱏⱀⱐⱌⰵ (slŭnĭce)

Polish: słońce

Upper Sorbian: słónco

Walloon: slo

Slovak: slnce, slnko

Kashubian: słuńce

Czech: slunce

Silesian: słůńce

Bulgarian: слъ̀нце (slǎ̀nce)

Lower Sorbian: słyńco


Belarusian: со́нца (sónca)

Rusyn: сонце (sonce)

Ukrainian: со́нце (sónce)

Macedonian: сонце (sonce)

Slovene: sọ̑nce

German: Sonne

Plautdietsch: Sonn

Luxembourgish: Sonn

Dutch: zon

Afrikaans: son


Manx: sooill

Aromanian: soari

Friulian: soreli

Istro-Romanian: sore

Romanian: soare


Gothic: 𐍃𐌰𐌿𐌹𐌻 (sáuil)

Old Prussian: saule

Latvian: saũle

Lithuanian: saulė

Dalmatian: saul


Tocharian B: swāñco


Serbo-Croatian: су̑нце, sȗnce

Middle English: sunne, sonne

Old Frisian: sunne

Saterland Frisian: Sunne

Old Saxon: sunna

Middle Low German: sunne

German Low German: Sünn, Sünne

Dutch Low Saxon: Zunne

Old Dutch: sunna

Middle Dutch: sunne, sonne

Old English: sunne

Old High German: sunna

Middle High German: sunne

Old Norse: sunna

Icelandic: sunna

Faroese: sunna

Gothic: 𐍃𐌿𐌽𐌽𐍉 (sunnō)

English: sun

Scots: sun, son

Crimean Gothic: sun


Old Irish: súil ("eye")

Irish: súil

Scottish Gaelic: sùil

Norn: sul

Scots: sul, sool

Istriot: sul

Breton: Sul

Romansch: sulegl, sulagl, sulai

Sicilian: suli

Welsh: Sul

Breton: Sulis ("Celtic god of the sun")


Sanskrit: सूर्य (sū́rya)

Sanskrit: सूर् (sū́r), स्वर् (svár)

Assamese: সূৰুয (sūruya)

Bengali: সূর্য (surjô)

Gujarati: સૂરજ (sūraj)

Hindi: सूरज (sūraj)

Marathi: सुरिज (surij)

Oriya: ଶର (sūra)

Punjabi: ਸੂਰਜ (sūraj)

Rajasthani: सूरज (sūraj)

Urdu: سوریہ‎ (sūrya), سورج‎ (sūraj)

Ladin: surëdl


Old English: sweġl


Kamviri (Nuristatni): su


Old English: siġel

West Frisian: sinne

Norn: sjiner


Notice that linguistically if we change "H to S" or "R to L" in this group we can insert many of those words into the above groups

Breton: heol

Cornish: howl

Welsh: haul, huan

Avestan: huuar

Avestan: huuarə (gen. hᵛə̄ṇg), hūrō

Central Kurdish: خۆر‎ (hōr), خوەر‎ (hwar)

Southern Kurdish: خوەر‎ (hwar)

Laki: ھوەر‎ (hwar)

Ossetian: хур (hur)

Sogdian: ܮܘܪ‎ (hwar, hur) , ܮܘܝܪ‎ (huwər, hōyr)

Middle Persian: hwl (hwar)

Persian: خور‎ (hōr), هور‎ (hūr, hôr)

Attic Greek: ἥλιος (hḗlios)

Doric Greek: ἅλιος (hálios)


Cretan Greek: ἀβέλιος (abélios)

Doric, Aeolic, Arcadocypriot Greek: ἀέλιος (aélios)

Homeric Greek: ἠέλιος (ēélios)

Greek: ήλιος (ílios)

Dhivehi: އިރު‎ (iru)

Sinhalese: ඉර (ira), හිරු (hiru)

Old Polish: skwar, war

Hawrami: وەر‎ (war)

Hittite: DUTU-li-ya

Article published on the 11th of July 2018.