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indo-european man mąż manu wer wir vir vyras icon

There are two types of words for a man in English namely: "wer" and "man".

A famous term werewolf comes exactly from this first word: were + wolf (man + wolf).

Greek βρυκόλακας (vrykolakas), vorvolakas, vourdoulakas describes the same creature.

Rune ᛗ means "a man". Present in the Elder Fuþark (ᛗ), the Anglo-Saxon Fuþorc (ᛗ, called mann), and the Younger Fuþark (ᛗ or ᛘ), and associated in all three with the concept of "human" or "man".

Manu (Sanskrit: मनु) is a term found with various meanings in Hinduism. In early texts, it refers to the archetypal man, or to the first man (progenitor of humanity). The Sanskrit term for 'human', मानव (mānava) means "of Manu" or "children of Manu". In later texts, Manu is the title or the name of fourteen mystical Kshatriya rulers of the Earth, or alternatively as the head of mythical dynasties that begin with each cyclic kalpa (aeon) when the universe is born anew.


Sanskrit: मनुष्य (manuṣyá)

Sanskrit: मनु (mánu)

Assamese: মানুহ (mānuh)

Garhwali: मन्खि (mankhi)

Gujarati: માણસ (māṇas)

Hindi: मानस (mānas)

Hindi: मनुष्य (manuṣya)

Hindi: मानव (mānav)

Marathi: माणूस (māṇūsa)

Nepali: मानिस (mānis)

Punjabi: ਮਨੁੱਖ (manukhkh)

Sindhi: माण्हू (māṇhū)

Sylheti: manu

Avestan: manuš

Old English: mann, man, manna

Middle English: man, manne, mæn

Scots: man

English: man

Old Frisian: man

North Frisian: maan

West Frisian: man

Old Saxon: man

Middle Low German: man

German Low German: Mann

Plautdietsch: Maun

Old Dutch: man

Middle Dutch: man

Dutch: man

Afrikaans: man

Limburgish: man

Old High German: man

Middle High German: man

Alemannic German: Mann, Maa, ma, mà, mo

Cimbrian: man, mann, månn

Hunsrik: Mann

German: Mann

Luxembourgish: Mann

Old Norse: maðr

Icelandic: maður

Faroese: maður

Norn: mann

Norwegian: mann

Old Swedish: maþer, mander, man

Swedish: man

Old Danish: man

Danish: mand

Old Gutnish: maþr

Gutnish: man

Scanian: manð

Elfdalian: mann

Westrobothnian: mænn

Gothic: 𐌼𐌰𐌽𐌽𐌰 (manna)

Old Polish: mąż (manż)

Bulgarian: мъж (mǎž)

Macedonian: маж (maž)


Old English: monn, mon

Middle English: mon, monne

Old Frisian: mon

East Central German: Moan

Bavarian: mon, mònn, moon

Saterland Frisian: Mon

Old Church Slavonic: мѫжь ⰿⱘⰶⱐ (mǫžĭ)

Slovene: mọ̑ž

Kashubian: mąż

Polish: mąż (monzh)


Belarusian: муж (muž) ("husband")

Russian: муж (muž) ("husband")

Ukrainian: муж (muž)

Serbo-Croatian: му̑ж, mȗž

Czech: muž

Slovak: muž

Lower Sorbian: muž

Upper Sorbian: muž


Old Prussian: zmūi

Old Lithuanian: żmuo (from "muoż" or "mouż"?)

Lithuanian: žmogus


Old English: wer

English: wer, wergild

Old Frisian: wer

Old Saxon: wer

Dutch: weer (normally only found in weergeld, weerwolf, wereld)

Old High German: wer

Old Norse: verr

Icelandic: ver

Faroese: ver

Old Swedish: vær

Old Irish: fer

Gothic: 𐍅𐌰𐌹𐍂 (wair)

Crimean Gothic: fers

Irish: fear

Manx: fer

Scottish Gaelic: fear


---> Finnish: Virankannos, Wirancannos, Virokannas, Wirokannas ("Old priest")

Tocharian A: wir ("youthful, young, fresh")

Latin: vir

Avestan: vīra

Lithuanian: vyras

Samogitian: vīrs

Latvian: vīrs

Old Prussian: wijrs

Pali: vīra

Sauraseni Prakrit: vīra

Hindi: वीर (vīr)

Marathi: वीर (vīr)

Old Cornish: uir

Umbrian: uiro

Jatvingian (Sudovian): wiros

Celtiberian: uiros, Viriathus

Ossetian: ир (ir) ("Men", "Ossetians", "Ossetian nation")

Hindi: बीर (bīr)

Sogdian: wir

Yaghnobi: wir

Celtiberian: viroku ("male-wolf", from viro + ku)


East Slavic: vit

Polish: wit (in Siemowit)

Polabian: vit (in Svantevit, Zvanthevith)


Albanian: burrë


Cornish: gour

Old Welsh: gur

Middle Welsh: gur

Welsh: gŵr

Article published on the 30th of October 2018.

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