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indo-european war kara punishment icon

Kara means simply a "punishment" and in general "war" or an "army" like Lithuanian "karas".

Hittite "karas" was probably a general term denoting the entire army, including fighters, support troops, and baggage and food animals on the move. This term may also have denoted a military camp.

The Celts were famous for their chariots and modern English words like "car", "carriage" and "carry" are ultimately derived from the native Brythonic language (Modern Welsh "cerbyd"). The word chariot itself is derived from the Norman French "charriote" and shares a Celtic root (Gaulish "karros"). All this denotes to the etymology of a car meaning simply "the vehicle of war".

In Norse mythology there was a Valkyrie named Kara.


---> Estonian: kari ("herd, flock")

---> Finnish: karja ("cattle")

---> Votic: karja ("pasture")

Hittite: karaš ("army")

Lithuanian: karas ("war")

Latvian: karš ("war")

Old Prussian: kargis (karjis) ("army, troops")

Old Prussian: karyago ("war path")

Old Persian: 𐎼𐎢 (kāra) ("people of war, army")

Belarusian: ка́ра (kára) ("punishment")

Russian: ка́ра (kára) ("punishment")

Ukrainian: ка́ра (kára) ("punishment")

Old Church Slavonic: кара (kara) ("punishment")

Serbo-Croatian: ка̑р, kar ("punishment")

Slovene: ка̑r ("punishment")

Czech: kára ("punishment")

Polish: kara ("punishment")

Slovak: kára ("punishment")

Persian: کارزار‎ (kārzār) ("field of battle, battle")

Sogdian: aksas-karkia ("fighting")

Sogdian: aksaskarii ("soldier")

Middle Persian: kārzār ("battle")

Parthian: kʾrwʾn‎ (kārwān) ("army on the march, army")

Belarusian: кара́ць (karácʹ) ("to punish")

Old Russian: карати (karati) ("to punish")

Ukrainian: кара́ти (karáty) ("to punish")

Bulgarian: ка́рам (káram) ("to scold, to quarrel")

Macedonian: кара (kara) ("to scold")

Serbo-Croatian: ка́рати, kárati ("to scold, to punish")

Chakavian (Orbanići): se kārȁt ("to quarrel")

Slovene: kárati ("to scold; to nick")

Czech: kárat ("to scold, to reproach, to punish")

Polish: karać ("to punish, to reproach")

Slovak: kárať ("to reproach, to punish")

Slovincian: kãrăc ("to punish")

Lower Sorbian: karaś ("to whip, to punish")

Latin: carināre ("to use abusive language")

Lithuanian: káirinti ("to provoke")

Latvian: kaĩrinât, karinât ("to tease, to irritate")

Middle Breton: carez ("mistake, sin")

Cornish: cara ("mistake, sin")

Old Welsh: cared ("mistake, sin")

Middle Welsh: cared, karet ("mistake, sin")

Welsh: caredd ("mistake, sin")

Old Irish: caire ("mistake, sin")

Jatvingian: karo ("fight")


---> Livonian: kōŗa ("herd, flock")

Ancient Greek: κοίρανος (koíranos) ("leader, commander")

Irish: coir ("mistake, sin")

Scottish Gaelic: coire ("mistake, sin")


Vimose Comb (circa year 160, considered the oldest datable runic inscription): ᚺᚨᚱᛃᚨ (harja)

Gothic: 𐌷𐌰𐍂𐌾𐌹𐍃 (harjis) ("army")


Old English: here

Middle English: here, heere

Scots: here, heir, heyr

English: here

Old Frisian: here, hire

Saterland Frisian: Heer

West Frisian: hear

Old Saxon: heri

Middle Low German: hēre, hēr

Old Dutch: heri (in placenames)

Middle Dutch: here

Dutch: heer, heir

Old High German: heri

Middle High German: here, her

German: Heer

Old Norse: herr ("crowd, great number, army, troops")

Icelandic: her ("military, army")

Faroese: herur ("military, army")

Norwegian Bokmål: hær ("army")

Norwegian Nynorsk: her, hær ("army")

Old Swedish: hær ("army")

Swedish: här ("army")

Danish: hær ("army")

Westrobothnian: her ("army")


--> Hungarian: sereg ("legion")

--> Old Turkic: çerig


Middle Irish: cuire ("army, troops")

Article created on the 14th of September 2018.