Indo-European Connection LogoINDO-EUROPEAN  CONNECTIONIndo-European Connection Logo
Indo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection LogoINDO-EUROPEAN  CONNECTIONIndo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection LogoIndo-European Connection Logo


indo-european heart herz serce cor ker kardia icon

Hittite "ker" indicates that initial letter of this word should be K but Luwian from the same Anatolian branch has S in the same place in "zārza". Hittite has both K and S in heart and namely there is also a neutral form "ŠA-er". "ŠA" is a Sumerogram, but maybe like Luwian "zārza" it was used literally to denote "za". It is like Schrodinger's Cat, neither Satem nor Centum was first. You can only be sure if you will see that magical "Proto-Indo-European" in written form or even better, hear it but then you might hear a terryfing KS sound in that place.

Additionally very old Avestan "zərəd" and "zarəδaiia" also indicate S or Z as an initial letter instead of K. How could then truly be determined "which one was first"? I see no logic how it could be done as in many common words mentioned in all previous word articles on this website it was clearly proven that the magic of K and H and S can never be solved.

Welsh "craidd" means "centre, middle". Could then the initial meaning of heart be "something that is in the middle of a human body or chest"? Most probably yes because exactly the same similarity occurs in Slavic languages.

English word "courage" is related through French to Latin "cor", which means "heart". Courage then is something "taken out of heart, driven by heart - main pump of human energy through blood".

Cardiology could as well be named Heartology and it would make no difference at all. Not only the meaning would stay the same but also the source for this word (it is a cognate).


Below are the oldest languages:

Hittite: ker

Ancient Greek: κῆρ (kêr)

Tocharian B: käryāñ (keriani) ("hearts")


Below are only Germanic languages:

Old English: heorte

English: heart

Yola: hearth

Middle English: herte

Scots: hert, hart

West Frisian: hert

Old Saxon: herta

Middle Low German: herte

Old Frisian: herte

Old Dutch: herta

Middle Dutch: herte, harte

Limburgish: hert

Old High German: herza

Middle High German: hërze, hërz

Alemannic German: Härz

Hunsrik: Herz

Cimbrian: hèrtz

German: Herz

Luxembourgish: Häerz

Norwegian Bokmål: hjerte

Danish: hjerte

Gutnish: hjärte

Swedish: hjärta

Elfdalian: järta


Below are Balto-Slavic and Iranian languages:

Old Prussian: seyr

Lithuanian: šerdis ("core, kernel, pith")

Samogitian: šėrdės

Russian: се́рдце (sérdce)

Rusyn: шерцо (šerco)

Ukrainian: се́рце (sérce)

Kashubian: serce

Old Polish: sierce

Polish: serce

Belarusian: сэ́рца (sérca)

Silesian: śerce

Lower Sorbian: serce

Ossetian: зӕрдӕ (zærdæ)

Avestan: zərəd

Zazaki: zerri

Prasuni: zər

Belarusian: серада́ (sjeradá) ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Russian: середи́на (seredína) ("middle, centre")

Russian: середа́ (seredá) ("Wednesday, middle")

Rusyn: се́реда (séreda) ("Wednesday, middle")

Ukrainian: середа́ (seredá) ("Wednesday; middle")

---> Skolt Sami: seärad (seerad or sierad) ("Wednesday")

---> Hungarian: szerda ("Wednesday")


Below are the oldest languages:

Tocharian B: arañce (karañce?, harañce?, sarañce?)

Tocharian A: āriñc (kāriñc?, hāriñc?, sāriñc?)

Palaic: kart-

Hittite: kardiyaš ("heart's")

Ancient Greek: καρδία (kardía)

Greek: καρδιά (kardiá)


Below are only Germanic languages:

Gothic: 𐌷𐌰𐌹𐍂𐍄𐍉 (hairtō)

English: heart

Yola: hearth

Low German: Hart

Dutch: hart

Afrikaans: hart

Old Norse: hjarta

Icelandic: hjarta

Faroese: hjarta

Norn: hjarta

Norwegian Nynorsk: hjarta, hjarte

Old Swedish: hiærta

Old Danish: hiartæ, hiærtæ

Middle Low German: harte

Scanian: hjarta

Westrobothnian: hjart


Below are the oldest Anatolian, Iranian and Slavic languages:

Luwian: UZU-zārza, za-ra/i-za

Hittite: ša-er

Hittite: ša-aš ("heart's")

Bulgarian: сърце (sǎrce)

Avestan: zarəδaiia

Ossetian: зӕрдӕ (zærdæ)

Kativiri: žarə

Belarusian: сярэдзі́на (sjaredzína) ("middle, centre")


Below are only Latin languages:

Latin: cor (kor)

Old Portuguese: cor

Galician: cor

Portuguese: cor

Old Occitan: cor

Catalan: cor

Occitan: còr

Emilian: côr

Franco-Provençal: côr

Romansch: cor

Venetian: cor

Lombard: cœr

Romanian: cor, cord

Istriot: cor, core, cour

Corsican: core

Italian: cuore

Neapolitan: core

French: cœur

Walloon: cour

Sardinian: coru, còro

Sicilian: cori

Tarantino: côre

Old French: corage ("courage, of heart")

Old Occitan: coratge ("courage, of heart")

Catalan: coratge ("courage, of heart")

Occitan: coratge ("courage, of heart")

Galician: coraxe ("courage, of heart")

Italian: coraggio ("courage, of heart")

Portuguese: coragem ("courage, of heart")

Spanish: coraje ("courage, of heart")

Venetian: coragio ("courage, of heart")


Below are only Nuristani languages:

Tregami: žō

Waigali: zȫ, žō


This form does not exist.


Punjabi: ਹਿਰਦਾ (hirdā)


Old Armenian: սիրտ (sirt)

Armenian: սիրտ (sirt)

Old East Slavic: сьрдьце (sĭrdĭce)

Old Polish: sirce, sirdce

Lithuanian: širdis

Latgalian: sirds

Latvian: sirds


Baluchi: دل‎ (dil) (from sir?)

Kurdish: dil (from sir?)

Persian: دل‎ (del)(from ser?)


Below is one Anatolian and one Tocharian language and the rest are Celtic languages:

Lycian: kride

Old Irish: cride

Scottish Gaelic: cridhe

Tocharian A: kri ("will")

Middle Breton: kreis

Breton: kreiz

Cornish: kres

Welsh: craidd ("centre, middle")

Irish: croí

Manx: cree

This group stays strong with R1b data and Yamnaya origins of Afanasievo Culture, meaning that this culture was ancestral to the Tocharians, not R1a1a Tarim Mummies from Andronovo Culture. This could also mean that insular Celtic languages originated already with an arrival of Bell Beaker Culture to the British Isles.


Below are only Indo-Aryan languages:

---> Telugu: hr̥dayamu

Sanskrit: हृदय (hṛ́daya)

  • the heart
  • soul, mind, spirit
  • interior of the body
  • centre or core or essence or best or dearest or most secret part of anything
  • true or divine knowledge
  • the Veda
  • science

Sanskrit: हृद् (hṛ́d) ("heart; soul, mind; interior of the body; breast, chest")

Urdu: ہردی‎ (hŕday)

Bengali: হৃদয় (hridôy), হৃদ (hrid)

Hindi: हृदय (hŕday), हिया (hiyā)

Just like in all above Germanic languages an initial H could come from an initial K then here this initial H could come from an initial S.


Below are only Slavic languages and a Pastho language:

Old Church Slavonic: ⱄⱃⱐⰴⱐⱌⰵ срьдьце (srĭdĭce)

Czech: srdce

Slovak: srdce

Macedonian: срце (srce)

Serbo-Croatian: ср̏це sȑce

Slovene: srcẹ̑

Pashto: زړه‎ (zṛë), ړه‎ (ṛë)

Polish: środek ("middle, centre")

Russian: среди́на (sredína) ("middle, centre")

Bulgarian: среда (sreda) ("middle, centre")

Macedonian: средина (sredina), средиште (središte) ("middle, centre")

Serbo-Croatian: средина, sredina ("middle, centre")

Slovene: sredina ("middle, centre")

Old Church Slavonic: срѣда (srěda) ("center, Wednesday")

Bulgarian: сря́да (srjáda) ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Macedonian: среда (sreda) ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Serbo-Croatian: сре́да, срије́да, sréda, srijéda ("Wednesday, middle")

Slovene: srẹ̑da ("Wednesday, middle")

Polish: środa ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Lower Sorbian: srjoda ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Upper Sorbian: srjeda ("Wednesday, middle of the week")


Czech: středa ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Kashubian: strzoda ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Silesian: strzoda ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Slovak: streda ("Wednesday, middle of the week")

Czech: střed ("middle, centre")

Slovak: stred ("middle, centre")


Dalmatian: cur

Friulian: cûr

Old Spanish: cuer

Spanish: cuer

Sicilian: curaggiu ("courage, of heart")

Maltese: kuraġġ ("courage, of heart")

Greek: κουράγιο (kourágio) ("courage, of heart")


Saterland Frisian: Haat

Vilamovian: haoc

Plautdietsch: Hoat

Central Franconian: Hätz, Hetz, Häerz

Gujarati: હૈયું (haiyũ)

Marathi: हिय्या (hiyyā)

Old Marathi: हियें (hiyeṃ), हृदा (hṛdā)

Pali: hadaya


Ashkun: židī


Ligurian: cheu

Old French: cuer, coer, quer

Middle French: coeur, cueur, cœur

Piedmontese: cheur

Non Indo-European languages:

Mingrelian: კიდირი (ḳidiri) ("chest, breast")

Old Georgian: მკერდი (mḳerdi) ("chest, breast")

Georgian: მკერდი (mḳerdi) ("chest, breast")

Svan: მუჭუ̂ედ (muč̣ûed) ("chest, breast")

Mongolian: зүрх (zürh)

Kazakh: жүрек (žürek)


Enets: сео


Mator: kei

Tundra Nenets: сей (siey)

Hungarian: szív

Northern: сым (sim)

Komi: сьӧлӧм (sʹölöm)

Udmurt: сюлэм (sjulem)

Mari: шӱм (šüm)

Skolt Sami: čââʹđ

Estonian: süda

Finnish: sydän

Ingrian: süän

Karelian: seän, syväin

Livonian: sidām

Ludian: südäm

Veps: südäin

Võro: süä

Votic: süä

Article published on the 30th of October 2018. The theories above are the sole ideas of the Indo-European Connection.

Cookies and other technologiesBy clicking "Accept" or continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of Indo-European Connection and third-party cookies and other similar technologies to enhance your browsing experience, analyze and measure your engagement with our content, and provide more relevant ads. You can withdraw your consent at any time.

Privacy policy