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BROTHER

indo-european brother icon

One interesting fact is that the English word "pal" comes from a Romani word "phral" which simply means "a brother".



BRA-

Sanskrit: भ्रातृ (bhrā́tṛ)

Czech: bratr

Upper Sorbian: bratr

Old Church Slavonic: братръ ⰱⱃⰰⱅⱃⱏ (bratrŭ), братъ (bratŭ)

Gaulish: Bratronos ("little brother")

Sogdian: bratr

Avestan: brātar

Old Irish: bráthair

Irish: bráthair

Scottish Gaelic: bràthair

Lower Sorbian: bratš

Mysian: βρατεραις (braterais) (dat.pl.)

Phrygian: βρατερε (bratere) (dat.sg.)

Lydian: brafrsis

Latvian: brātarītis

Old Prussian: brāti

Latvian: brālis

Belarusian: брат (brat)

Russian: брат (brat)

Rusyn: брат (brat)

Ukrainian: брат (brat)

Bulgarian: брат (brat)

Macedonian: брат (brat)

Serbo-Croatian: бра̏т, brȁt

Slovene: brȁt

Kashubian: brat

Polish: brat

Silesian: brat

Slovak: brat

Old Persian: 𐎲𐎼𐎠𐎫𐎠 (brātā)

Middle Welsh: brawt

Welsh: brawd

Khotanese: brāte

Tumshuqese: brāḍe

Bactrian: ϐραδο (βrād), ϐαραδο (βərād)

Chorasmian: βrʾd /βrād/

Sogdian: ᵊβrāt(ər)

Manichaean: brʾd /brād/, brʾdr /brādar/

Northern Kurdish: bra, bira

Central Kurdish: برا‎ (b(i)ra)

Southern Kurdish: برا‎ (b(i)ra)

Laki: برا‎ (b(i)ra)

Manx: braar

Zazaki: brâ


BHA-

Bengali: ভাই (bhai)

Konkani: भाव (bhāv)

Old Marathi: bhāū

Marathi: भाऊ (bhāū)

Gujarati: ભાઈ (bhāī)

Hindi: भाई (bhāī), भैया (bhaiyā)

Old Armenian: եղբայր (ełbayr), genitive եղբաւր (ełbawr)

Tajik: бародар (barodar)

Baluchi: برات‎ (barát), برادر‎ (barādar)

Iranian Persian: برادر‎ (birādar, barādar)


BRO-

Lithuanian: broterėlis

Lithuanian: brolis, brotis

Polabian: brot

Old Breton: brotr

Cornish: broder

Old English: brōþor

Middle English: brother

English: brother

Old Frisian: brōther

North Frisian Söl'ring: Bröðer

North Frisian Hallig: bröör

North Frisian Southern Goesharder: brööðer

North Frisian Saterland Frisian: Brour, Bruur

West Frisian: broer

Old Saxon: brōthar

Middle Low German: brōder

German Low German: Broor, Broder

Plautdietsch: Brooda

Middle Dutch: broeder

Dutch: broeder, broer

Afrikaans: broeder, broer

North Frisian Bökingharde: brouder

Limburgish: broor

Old Norse: bróðir

Icelandic: bróðir

Faroese: bróðir

Norwegian: bror, broder

Old Swedish: brōþir

Swedish: broder, bror

Danish: bror, broder

Gutnish: bródar, brór

Gothic: 𐌱𐍂𐍉𐌸𐌰𐍂 (brōþar)

Yola: brover, brower


BRU-

Old High German: bruoder

Middle High German: bruoder

Alemannic German: Brüeder, briöder, bruder, brueder, bröder

German: Bruder

Luxembourgish: Bruder

Pennsylvania German: Bruder

Vilamovian: brüder

Norn: brui

North Frisian Fering: bruder

North Frisian Halunder: Bruur

Crimean Gothic: bruder

Scots: bruther, bruder, broder, brither


BREU-

Middle Breton: breuzr

Breton: breur


FRA-

Latin: frāter

Oscan: 𐌚𐌓𐌀𐌕𐌓𐌞𐌌 (fratrúm)

Umbrian: frater

Venetic: fhraterei

Albanian: frat (religious)

Aromanian: frati, frate

Neapolitan: fràte

Proto-Romanian: fratre

Romanian: frate

Corsican: frateddu

Sicilian: frati, frateddu

Italian: fratello, frate

Friulian: fradi

Galician: frade, frei

Sardinian: fràde

Old French: fradre, fredre, frere

Venetian: fradel, fradelo

Old Portuguese: frade, freire

Portuguese: frade, freire

Catalan: frare, frari, flare, flari, fraire

Franco-Provençal: frâre

Istriot: fra

English: fra

Occitan: fraire

Romansch: frar

Spanish: fraile, fray


FR-

Dalmatian: frutro

Middle French: frere

French: frère

Norman: fréthe

Istro-Romanian: fråte


P-

Tocharian A: pracar

Tocharian B: procer

Bavarian: pruadar, prueder, pruider

Cimbrian: pruudar, pruadar

Attic and Koine Greek: φρᾱ́τηρ (phrā́tēr)

Doric Greek: φρᾱτήρ (phrātḗr)

Ionic Greek: φρήτηρ (phrḗtēr)

Romani: phral

Angloromani: phal

----> English: pal


V-

Yagnobi: vⁱrṓt

Ishkashimi: vru, vrud

Sanglechi: vrud

Roshani: virōd

Shughni: virōd

Yazgulyam: vrád, vərád

Pashto: ورور‎ (wror) رور‎ (ror)


There might be also even older connection human languages present in this word. In the Native American Navajo language a word for brother is "ánaaí" and in the European isolate Basque language it is "anaia". The only connection between those two languages is the Ancient North Eurasian component but also the Neanderthal component (in Western European Hunter-Gatherers) and there is a higher possibility that this word comes from the Neanderthals in this case. This "ana" component is also preserved in the Polynesian words such as Malagasy "anadahy" and Maori "tuakana".


Article published on the 30th of October 2018.


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